On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which is to take effect exactly one year after that date.  When it comes to emission reductions, some countries aim high but are far from meeting the target, while others reject major commitments on the international stage but still receive good ratings for their greenhouse gas balances. Unfortunately, for most nations, history is a case of “too little, too late.” Sufficient targets, such as those associated with limiting global warming to a maximum of 2°Celsius, are often missed and even insufficient targets of limiting them to 3°Celsius are often not met. Finally, instead of giving China and India a passport to pollute, as Trump claims, the pact represents the first time that these two major developing countries have agreed on concrete and ambitious climate commitments. The two countries, which are already poised to become world leaders in renewable energy, have made significant progress towards achieving their Paris goals. And since Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the deal, the leaders of China and India have reaffirmed their commitment and continued to take domestic steps to achieve their goals. In addition, countries aim to reach a “global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The deal has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   “We are seeing steady progress in implementing the Paris Agreement,” said Mr. Figueres at a press conference held earlier this week ahead of Saturday`s summit, which was scheduled to take place in Glasgow, UK, before the pandemic forced its cancellation.
“Not as fast as we want, but it`s certainly moving forward.” To counter climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 in Paris on 12 December 2015. The agreement, which entered into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit the rise in global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while looking for ways to further limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The summit countries will also face other financial challenges. Many leading developed countries had announced an initiative to double spending on clean energy research and development by this year, an increase of $10 billion a year. So far, however, efforts have only increased spending by $4.9 billion. It`s also unclear whether the wealthiest countries will abide by previously promised $100 billion in public and private funding for climate-related work such as renewable energy projects by this year. (Spending had risen to $79 billion in 2018, the latest year available, from an earlier high of $62 billion in 2014, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.) The mix of opposing trends has meant that the progress made possible by the Paris Agreement has been “very gradual,” Hare says. So, to stay below the 2°C warming threshold – or below the 1.5°C limit that vulnerable island states deem necessary to prevent rising seas from swallowing their communities – countries meeting at Saturday`s summit must commit to further reducing emissions. “What needs to happen over the next few years,” Hare says, “is something much more transformative.” Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference has been expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that strictly belong to each other, and there are concerns that there will be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target – as well as the UK`s vote. in favor of leaving the EU could undermine the Paris Delay the Pact.
 However, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016 and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Indeed, research clearly shows that the costs of climate change inaction far outweigh the costs of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States fails to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A global failure to meet the NDCs currently set out in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. At the same time, another study estimates that meeting – or even exceeding – the Paris targets through infrastructure investments in clean energy and energy efficiency could have huge global benefits – around $19 trillion. This change is the result of a combination of technological, economic and political changes, says Bill Hare, a physicist and CEO of Climate Analytics, a nonprofit organization that is part of the consortium. The cost of renewable energy technologies such as solar energy has fallen sharply. Economic growth has slowed. Regulations, especially in European countries, have begun to reduce emissions. In Europe, emissions have fallen by 23% compared to 1990 levels in 2018. On Friday, EU leaders agreed on a plan to cut 55% by 2030.
The NDC Partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to strengthen cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve large-scale climate and sustainability goals. The NDC Partnership is led by a Steering Committee composed of developed and developing countries and international institutions and led by a support unit based at the World Resources Institute based in Washington, DC and Bonn, Germany. The NDC Partnership is jointly led by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and includes 93 member countries, 21 institutional partners and ten associate members. The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides an opportunity for developed countries to support developing countries in their efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and strengthening of individual and collective climate objectives of countries. INDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations regarding the nature and severity of the targets set by different countries. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 at the latest and to reduce carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030.
The Alliance of Small Island States and Least Developed Countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change, has lobbied to address loss and damage as a stand-alone issue of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that classifying the issue as a separate measure going beyond adaptation measures would create another provision on climate finance or imply legal liability for catastrophic climate events. Paragraphs 6.4 to 6.7 introduce a mechanism “to contribute to the control of greenhouse gases and support sustainable development”.  Although there is still no specific name for the mechanism, many Parties and observers have informally united around the name “Sustainable Development Mechanism” or “SW Award”.   The MSD is considered the successor to the Clean Development Mechanism, a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol through which Parties could jointly request emission reductions for their intended nationally determined contributions. .